Studies

Below sets a table with various conditions treated with CBD and subsequent results backed by the referred studies. All the papers listed below relate to studies involving humans. This tables contain studies ranging from Anxiety to Epilepsy, showing CBD great potential on the medical field.

Anxiety

Study Sample Size Disorder Outcome
Crippa et al [1] 10 Anxiety CBD decreases anxiety levels when compared to Placebo
Bergamaschi et al [2] 24 General anxiety disorder (GAD) CBD decreases anxiety levels when compared to Placebo
Zuardi et al [3] 40 Anxiety CBD decreases speech test-induced anxiety levels when compared to Placebo
Borgwardt et al [4] Winton-Brown et al [5] Fusar-Poli et al [6,7] 15 Anxiety CBD decreases anxiety levels when compared to Placebo
Hsiao et al [8] 16 Anxiety CBD decreases speech test-induced anxiety levels when compared to Placebo
Fusar-Poli, P. et al [9] 17 Anxiety CBD decreases anxiety levels when compared to Placebo

CANCER

 
Study Cancer In vitro effect In vivo effect
Bifulco M et al [10]; Thomas A [11] Freimuth N et al [12],Pertwee RG [13] Breast Decreased proliferation; Decreased viability; Decreased invasion Decreased xenografts growth; Decreased lung metastases; Decreased tumour growth and Decreased size and number of metastases
McAllister SD et al [14], Shrivastava A et al [15], Wirawan E et al [16], Jacobsson SO [17]; Cho DH et al [18]; Massi P et al [19] Glioma Decreased proliferation; Decreased proliferation and invasiveness; Decreased migration Decreased tumour growth; NC;NC
Marcu JP et al [20]; Torres S et al [21] Leukemia Decreased viability; Decreased viability; Decreased tumour burden; Increased tumour cell apoptosis
McKallip RJ et al [22], Li R et al.[23] Lung Decreased invasionDecreased lung metastases, Decreased PAI-1 in xenografts
Bifulco M et al [10]; Molina JR et al [24] Thyroid;thymoma Cytostatic effect; Decreased viability NC;NC
Ramer R et al [25] Colon Decreased proliferation Decreased ACF, Decreased polyps and Decreased tumours

Epilepsy

Study treatments (subjects per group) Duration Outcome
Mechoulam & Carlini [26] TRE - CBD (4); TRE - Placebo (5) 3 months CBD decreases number of seizures when compared to Placebo
Cunha et al [27] TRE-TLE CBD (7); TRE-TLE Placebo (8) 3-18 weeks CBD decreases number of seizures when compared to Placebo

Schizophrenia

Study Sample Size model/measures Outcome
Zuardi et al [3] Schizophrenic female patient (1) Psychotic symptoms (BPRS) CBD decreases Psychotic symptoms when compared to Placebo
Zuardi et al [28] Male patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (3) Psychotic symptoms (BPRS) One patient showed mild
Zuardi et al [29] Parkinson’s disease patients (6) L-dopa-induced psychosis (BPRS and PPQ) CBD decreases L-dopa-induced psychosis when compared to Placebo
Leweke et al [30] Acute paranoid schizophrenia patients (42) Psychotic symptoms (BPRS and PANSS) CBD equals Amisulpride antipsychotic effects (positive symptoms)

Glossary

  1. Hemp: refers to a variety of Cannabis sativa l. A plant that contains less than 0.2% THC per dry weight of material. It’s grown for industrial and food purposes.
  2. Cannabis sativa l.: A species of plant in the Cannabis genus and Cannabaceae Family; refers to both agricultural hemp and marijuana.
  3. CBD: short for cannabidiol; a phytocannabinoid found in the cannabis; does not result in euphoria and has shown to have benefits on human and animal health.
  4. CBD-A: short for cannabidiolic-acid; an acidic cannabinoid, the naturally occurring raw form of CBD that is produced directly in the plant.
  5. Anandamide: a derivative of arachidonic acid that occurs naturally in the brain (as well as some foods) and acts as a messenger molecule, playing roles in appetite, depression, memory, and fertility; one of the two known endocannabinoids.
  6. 2-AG: an ester formed from the arachidonic acid and glycerol that occurs naturally in the brain and is a CB1 receptor agonist; one of the two known endocannabinoids.
  7. Endogenous: Self-made; originating from within an organism.
  8. Endocannabinoid: naturally occurring cannabinoids in the human body.
  9. Phytocannabinoid: plant-based cannabinoids found in species of cannabis.
  10. Endocannabinoid System: refers to endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their production and degradation, and their receptors.
  11. CBI: cannabinoid receptor found primarily in the central nervous system (nerves in the brain and spinal cord).
  12. 12 CB2: cannabinoid receptor found primarily in the peripheral nervous system (nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord).
  13. THC: short for tetrahydrocannabinol; a phytocannabinoid found in cannabis shown to have some benefits on human and animal health, however, is responsible for intoxicating effects associated with marijuana use.
  14. CBN: short for cannabinol; a phytocannabinoid found in cannabis; it is produced when THC is metabolized and has little to no intoxicating effects.
  15. CBG: short for cannabigerol; known as the “parent cannabinoid“ and is the chemical precursor to THC and CBD.
  16. CBC: short for cannabichromene; a phytocannabinoid found in cannabis that has little to no intoxicating effects.
  17. Entourage Effect: refers to the idea that biologically active compounds can have enhanced biological activity when administered in combination.
  18. Hemptourage Effect: refers to the entourage effect of compounds present in hemp-derived CBD oil to optimize health and wellness.
  19. Terpene: a large and diverse class of strong smelling organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants and insects.
  20. Fatty Acid: long hydrocarbon chain, with a carboxyl group (COOH) at the end; important part of the fat-soluble components of living cells (lipids).
  21. Plant Sterol: cholesterol-like compounds that are naturally occurring in plants.
  22. Vitamin E: also known as alpha-tocopherol, a fat-soluble vitamin important for normal cell growth and function; found in vegetable oils, egg yolk, etc.
  23. Decarboxylation: removing a carboxyl group from a chemical compound; the process used to convert the CBD-A in CBD.
  24. Raw oil: a whole-plant CO2 extraction from agricultural hemp; Cannabidiolic Acid, or CBD-A, comprises a significant proportion of the extracted cannabinoids in the raw oil.
  25. CO2 Extraction: method used to extract our ONOL concentrates; CO2 gas is pressurized into a safe liquid and used to extract oils from plants with the advantage of no solvent residue.
  26. Non-psychotoxic: does not have a detrimental effect on the mind, personality or behavior; does not get you “high”.
  27. Chlorophyll: refers to groups of green pigmented molecules found in plants and algae, that is important for plant photosynthesis.

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